Förortssvenska och Kiezdeutsch, globalisering och invandring och de nya kreol-språken


Det finns olika typer av mänskliga språk. Längst ner på skalan har vi Pidginspråket som har en begränsad vokabulär, som t.ex. tekniska termer som används i de sydafrikanska gruvorna, samt en mycket enkel grammatik. På samma sätt finns det en vokabulär som är knuten till den nya mobila IT-teknologin.

Ett steg framåt är kreolspråken som till skillnad från Pidgin är fullfjädrade språk som är modersmål för människor, som t.ex. haitisk kreol.

Liknande kreolspråk skapas nu i invandrartäta områden i Europa. Men som John H. McWhorter skriver i Wall Street Journal så talas de nya kreolspråken inte enbart av invandrade ungdomar utan också av unga människor som dom kommer i kontakt med. Något som redan finns dokumenterat i Sverige.

What the World Will Speak in 2115
A century from now, expect fewer but simpler languages on every continent

Modern population movements are now creating a third wave of language streamlining. In cities world-wide, children of immigrants speaking many different languages are growing up speaking among themselves a version of their new country’s language that nibbles away at such arbitrary features as irregular verbs and gendered objects. It’s a kind of compromise between the original version of the language and the way their parents speak it.

Linguists have no single term yet for these new speech varieties, but from Kiezdeutsch in Germany to “Kebob Norsk” in Norway, from the urban Wolof of Senegal to Singapore’s “Singlish,” the world is witnessing the birth of lightly optimized versions of old languages. These will remain ways of speaking that are rarely committed to the page. Yet as we know from languages like Yiddish, this will hardly disqualify them as thriving human languages.

This streamlining should not be taken as a sign of decline. All of the “optimized” languages remain full languages in every sense of the term, as we know from the fact that I’m writing in one: An Old English speaker who heard modern English would consider it confounding and “broken.” That any language has all irregular verbs, eight tones or female tables is ultimately a matter of accident, not design.

Det ska bli intressant att se hur Förortsvenskan eller Rinkebysvenskan som den ursprungligen kallades, och liknande kreolspråk utvecklas, och hur dom kommer att påverka de nationella språk som redan finns i de nationer där de uppstår.

Economist har skrivit om samma fenomen: Teenagers’ argot
Purists may disapprove, but multi-ethnic dialects are spreading

THIRTEEN languages in Germany are on UNESCO’s endangered list. Kiezdeutsch, the argot of inner-city teenagers, is not one. “Morgen ich geh Kino,” meaning “Tomorrow I’m going to the cinema,” a young Kreuzberger may say. In standard German that would be “Morgen gehe ich ins Kino”, with the verb restored to second place and a missing “to the” added. Words borrowed from Turkish (lan, meaning dude) and Arabic (yalla!, or come on!) might also intrude.

You will hear such language in Berlin and other big cities. Most Germans assume that the speakers are immigrants or their children. Not necessarily, says Heike Wiese, a linguist at the University of Potsdam who has written a new book on the topic. “All types of kids in multilingual areas,” including those with German roots, speak Kiezdeutsch. There are foreign analogues: straattaal (street language) in the Netherlands; Rinkeby-svenska, named for a multi-ethnic Stockholm neighbourhood in Sweden.

Kiezdeutsch is a new dialect, Ms Wiese says, noticed by scholars in the 1990s but perhaps a decade or more older. It has its own grammatical rules, which can allow for greater expressiveness than standard German. By shoving the verb over, Kiezdeutsch can emphasise not just who is doing something but when. “Musstu” is a pungent fusion of “you” and “must”. Linguists are used to mourning the death of dialects; now they can watch one grow “in real time”, Ms Wiese says.

Är det någon som vet hur många olika kreolspråk det finns i Sverige och om förortssvenskan eller t.o.m miljonsvenskan som den också kallas, skiljer sig mellan Stockholm och säg Malmö?

En intressant utveckling som driver på språkens utveckling i dagens globaliserade värld.